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  • India is among the top Five countries spending on defence.1
  • India has the Second largest standing army in the world.2
  • As per the Union Budget for the financial year 2020-21, the allocation for Defense (excluding defence pension) is around US$ 62.06 Bn3. Around 1/3rd of this amount is allocated for capital expenditure.
  • Foreign vendors provide for more than 50% of defence equipment procured. This offers a huge opportunity for import substitution.4
  1. India’s requirements on defence are catered largely by imports. The opening of the Defence sector for private sector participation will help foreign Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to enter into strategic partnerships with Indian companies. This will enable them to leverage the domestic markets as well as aim at global markets. Besides helping in building domestic capabilities, it will also bolster exports in the long term.
  2. Since 2014, the Ministry of Defence has signed more than 180 contracts with the Indian Industry. These contracts were valued over US$ 25.8 Bn approximately.5
  3. Favourable government policy which promotes self-reliance, indigenisation, and technology upgradation. The policies also aim at achieving economies of scale, including the development of capabilities, for exports in the defence sector.
  4. India’s extensive modernisation plans with an increased focus on homeland security and growing attractiveness as a defence sourcing hub.
  • India has the 2nd largest standing army in the world.6
  • India’s total expenditure on modernization and equipment in the defence sector in the last three fiscals (till January 2020) was US$ 36.54 Bn.7
  • Around 1/3rd of the allocation to defence (excluding defence pensions) in the budget is allocated for capital expenditure.8
  • Total defence budget allocation for the Ministry of Defence is 15.49%9 of the total Central Government expenditure in 2020-21 Budget. The allocation for Defence in India's budget in 2020-21 is around US$ 62.06 Bn.10
  • Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) has been revised in 2016 and special provisions for simulating growth of domestic defence industry have been introduced11:
    1. DPP focuses on institutionalising, streamlining and simplifying defence procurement procedure to give a boost to “Make in India” initiative. It aims to promote indigenous design, development and manufacturing of defence equipment, platforms, systems and sub-systems. It also aims to enhance the role of MSMEs in the Defence industry.
    2. A new category of capital procurement: Buy Indian - Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured (IDDM) has been introduced to encourage indigenous design, development and manufacturing of defence equipment.
    3. Preference has been given to ‘Buy (Indian)’, ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’ and ‘Make’ categories over ‘Buy (Global)’ and ‘Buy and Make (Global)’ categories. A clear and unambiguous definition of indigenous content is provided.
    4. The ‘Make’ Procedure has been simplified with provisions for funding of 90% of development cost by the Government to Indian industry.
    5. Separate procedure for ‘Make-II’ category has been notified under DPP to encourage indigenous development and manufacture of defence equipment. Number of industry friendly provisions such as relaxation of eligibility criterion, minimal documentation, provision for considering proposals suggested by industry/individual etc. have been introduced in this procedure.
    6. Defence Products list requiring Industrial Licences has been rationalised and manufacture of most of parts or components does not require Industrial License. The initial validity of the Industrial License granted under the IDR Act has been increased from 03 years to 15 years with a provision to further extend it by 03 years on a case-to-case basis.
    7. Provision for Maintenance Transfer of Technology (MToT) to Indian partners.
    8. Provisions to allow foreign Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to select Indian Production Agency (PA).
    9. The requirement of minimum indigenous content is rationalised.
    10. ‘Services’ as an avenue for discharging offsets is re-introduced.12
  • Defence products list for industrial licensing was articulated in June 2014. It excluded large numbers of parts/components, castings/ forgings from the purview of industrial licensing.13
  • A revised list was published by the government in January 2019.14 The Defence Security Manual for the licenced defence industries is available in the public domain. The manual clarifies the security architecture required to be put in place by the industry while undertaking the manufacturing of sensitive defence equipment.15
  • MAKE procedure aims to promote research & development in the industry with support from the government and the placement of orders, has been promulgated with provision for 90% funding by Government and preference to MSMEs in a certain category of projects.16
  • The simplified MAKE-II was launched in January 2018, for simplification of collaboration between government and private Indian industries for indigenous design, development and manufacture of defence equipment.17
  • 100% FDI in the Defence industry: Up to 49% under the automatic route and FDI above 49%: through Government route, where it is likely to result in access to modern technology.18 
  • The Defence industry is subject to industrial licenses under the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 and manufacturing of small arms ammunition under Arms Act, 1959. 19
  • The requirement of a single largest Indian ownership of 51% of equity removed.20
  • A lock-in period of 3 years on equity transfer has been done away with in FDI for Defence.21
  • FDI in the Defence industry is subject to Security Manual Guidelines.



  • The defence procurement is governed by the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP 2016).
  • The latest revision of DPP was released in March 2016.
  • DPP focuses on institutionalising, streamlining and simplifying defence procurement procedure to give a boost to “Make in India” initiative.


  • The key objectives of the defence offset policy are to leverage capital acquisitions to develop the domestic Defence industry. The policy stipulates the mandatory offset requirement of a minimum of 30% for procurement of defence equipment by foreign defence players. It is applicable on categories of procurements where estimated cost of the acquisition proposal is US$ 286.04 Mn or more.22


  • The initial validity period of industrial licenses has increased from 3 years to 15 years. It also has a provision to grant an extension for a period of 3 years.23
  • Guidelines for the extension of validity of industrial licenses have been issued. Partial commencement of production is treated as the commencement of production of all the items included in the licence.24 

KEY PROVISIONS OF UNION BUDGET: 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21 

  • Development of 2 Defence-related industrial production corridors, one in Uttar Pradesh and another in Tamil Nadu.25
  • Investments of approximately US$ 487.16 Mn were announced by Ordnance Factory Board (OFB/Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs) & Private Industries for Uttar Pradesh Defence Corridors and investment of approximately US$ 408.16 Mn were announced by OFB/DPSUs & private industries for Tamil Nadu Defence Corridor.
  • Total budget of around US$ 62.06 Bn has been allocated for the Ministry of Defence for FY 2020-2126
  • Supply chain sourcing opportunity.
  • Modernization of armed forces – around US$ 130 Bn opportunities by 2025
  • Infrastructure development - Manufacturing cluster and park planned in Pune and Dholera
  • R&D - US$ 15.4 Mn allocated to set up ‘Technology Development Fund’
  • Defence products manufacturing - Indigenously designed, developed and manufactured (IDDM) is the new method of capital procurement 27
  • Airbus (France)
  • BAE India Systems (UK)
  • Pilatus (Switzerland)
  • Lockheed Martin (USA)
  • Boeing India (USA)
  • Raytheon (USA)
  • Israel Aerospace Industries (Israel)
  • Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. (Israel)
  • Dassault Aviation SA (France)28
  • Department of Defence Production, Ministry of Defence
  • Department for Promotion of Industry & Internal Trade, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India
  • Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India
  • Defence and Strategic Industries Association of India
  • Indigenous defence products unveiled - Akash Surface to Air Missile System, Dhanush Artillery Gun system and Light Combat Aircraft
  • The Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) amended to introduce Buy Indian-IDDM (Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured)
  • The policy on Strategic Partnerships to encourage the participation of the private sector, in the manufacture of defence platforms and equipment such as aircraft, submarines, helicopters and armoured vehicles.
  • ‘No Objection Certificate (NOC) for export: A web-based single window interface created to issue 'No Objection Certificate'. The process is transparent and time-bound, with the maximum processing time reduced to 25 days and 70% of the NOCs issued in 15 days.
  • The 10th edition of 'DefExpo' was organised from April 11 to 14, 2018 in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
  • The Government of India has decided to set up two Defence Production corridors, one each in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Tamil Nadu.
  • A Defence Investor Cell is also functional in the Department of Defence Production.
  • The maiden flight of indigenously developed Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) integrated on LCH was conducted successfully by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).29
  1. “Global defence spending is at a record high – 4 charts that show where the money goes,” World Economic Forum,
  2. “Ministry of Defence Annual Report 2018-19,” Ministry of Defence,
  3. “Defence Budget 2020-21,” Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  4. “Self Reliance in Defence Production,” Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  5. “More than 180 contracts valued over Rs 1,96,000 crore signed with Indian Defence Industry since 2014”, Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  6. “Ministry of Defence Annual Report 2018-19,” Ministry of Defence,
  7. “Defence Expenditure as a part of GDP”, Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  8. “Defence Budget 2020-21,” Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  9. “Defence Budget 2020-21,” Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  10. “Defence Budget 2020-21,” Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  11. “FDI in Defence”, Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  12. “Defence Procurement Procedure 2016 – Capital Procurement,” Ministry of Defence,
  13. “List of Defence Items Requiring Industrial Licence,” DPIIT,
  14. “Revised List of Defence Items Requiring Industry License,” Ministry of Commerce & Industry, PIB,
  15. “Security Manual for Licensed Defence Industries,” DPIIT,
  16. “‘Make-II’ Projects,” Department of Defence Production,
  17. “Simplified ‘Make-II’: Major Steps Towards ‘Make in India’ in Defence Production,” Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  18. “Consolidated FDI Policy Circular of 2016,” DPIIT,
  19. “Revised List of Defence Items Requiring Industry License,” Ministry of Commerce & Industry, PIB,
  20. “DIPP on a Overdrive to Boost Manufacturing,” Ministry of Commerce & Industry, PIB,
  21. “Investment Commitments under ‘Make In India’progamme,” Ministry of Commerce & Industry, PIB,
  22. Defence Procurement Procedure 2016 – Capital Procurement,” Ministry of Defence,
  23. “Defence Investor Cell,” Defence Investor Cell,
  24. “Industrial Licences to Defence Sector,” Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  25. “Defence Corridor,” Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  26. “Defence Budget 2020-21,” Ministry of Defence, PIB,
  27. “Defence Manufacturing – Industry Trends,” Invest India,
  28. “Defence Manufacturing – Major Investors,” Invest India,
  29. “Year End Review – 2018 Ministry of Defence,” Ministry of Defence, PIB,
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